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REACH is the abbreviation of the English name for Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals and symbolizes a new chemicals law within the EU.

All substances (chemicals) produced / imported in quantities of at least 1 tonne per year must be registered by manufacturers / importers. Substances must be registered exclusively at the European Chemicals Agency (EchA).

In order to improve the protection of human health and the environment against the risks posed by chemicals, the European Union created the REACH system (Regulation 1907/2006), an integrated system for the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals.
REACH entered into force on June 1, 2007 and targets chemicals both as such and in blends (paints, adhesives) and in articles (clothing, furniture, electrical appliances, etc.).
For this reason, REACH has an effect on a wide range of companies in different sectors, even on those who may not consider themselves involved in chemical substances.

Within REACH, you can have one of these roles:

Manufacturer: If you produce chemicals for their own use or to supply them to others (even if they are for export), they will have some important responsibilities under REACH.
Importer: If you buy something outside the EU / EEA, you will have some responsibilities under REACH. It may be the purchase of individual chemicals, mixes for sale or finished products such as clothing, furniture or plastic articles.
Downstream user: Most companies use chemicals, sometimes even without awareness, so you have to check your obligations if you use any chemical in your industrial or professional activity. You can have certain responsibilities under REACH. Within REACH, you can have one of these roles:

Manufacturer: If you produce chemicals for their own use or to supply them to others (even if they are for export), they will have some important responsibilities under REACH.
Importer: If you buy something outside the EU / EEA, you will have some responsibilities under REACH. It may be the purchase of individual chemicals, mixes for sale or finished products such as clothing, furniture or plastic articles.
Downstream user: Most companies use chemicals, sometimes even without awareness, so you have to check your obligations if you use any chemical in your industrial or professional activity. You may have certain responsibilities under REACH.

REACH obliges companies producing or importing chemicals to assess the risks associated with their use and to take the necessary measures to limit any identified risks.

In this context, registration is the fundamental element of REACH.
Chemicals manufactured in the EU or imported (from outside the EU) in annual quantities equal to or above one tonne must be compulsorily registered in a central data base administered by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) based in Helsinki .
A non-registered substance can not be placed on the European market.
By registering manufacturers and importers have to provide information on the properties, uses and measures to protect the use of chemicals. Requested data are proportional to the production volume and the risks posed by the substance.
However, certain groups of substances (listed in the Regulation) are exempted from the registration obligation:

polymers (provided the monomers that make up the polymers have been registered);
certain substances for which the estimated risk is negligible (water, glucose, etc.);
certain substances that are present in nature and which are not chemically modified;
substances used in research and scientific development under certain conditions.

The registration obligation applies from 1 June 2008, but a transitional regime is available until 1 June 2018 for certain substances that have been pre-registered.
Companies that have pre-registered their substances by 1 December 2008 can benefit from a transitional regime for the registration of the respective substances:

November 30, 2010 – the registration of substances produced or imported in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more, carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction in annual quantities of over 1 tonne and dangerous substances for aquatic organisms or the environment in annual quantities over 100 tonnes.
31 May 2013 – Registration of substances produced or imported in annual quantities of 100-1000 tons.
31 May 2018 – registration of substances produced or imported in annual quantities of 1-100 tons.

Substances with particular concern may be subject to the European Commission’s review for authorization, for special uses. The objective is to ensure that risks related to these substances are adequately controlled and that these substances are gradually replaced with other appropriate substances or technologies when they are economically and technically feasible.
ECHA regularly publishes and updates a list of substances (the list of candidate substances) identified as having extremely worrying features. It can include:

CMR substances (carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic for reproduction);
PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) substances;
vPvB substances (very persistent and very bio-accumulative substances);
certain substances of particular concern that have serious irreversible effects on human health and the environment, such as endocrine disruptors.

Inclusion in the Candidate List implies under certain conditions an obligation to inform about the presence of this substance in certain articles.

After inclusion of this substance in Annex XIV of the Regulation, any placing on the market or use of that chemical will have to be the subject of an authorization application.
If a substance you use is subject to authorization then this information must be found in section 15 of the safety data sheet.
All authorizations need to be reviewed after a certain amount of time, which is determined on a case-by-case basis.
Downstream users may assign an authorized use of a particular substance, provided that they obtain the substance from a licensed firm and comply with the conditions for granting this authorization.
According to REACH, holders of an authorization as well as downstream users who incorporate substances into a mixture have the obligation to mention the authorization number on the label before placing on the market the substance or mixture in the composition of which the substance is for authorized use.
Also, downstream users have the obligation to notify ECHA within 3 months of receiving the authorized substance for the first time. ECHA will create and update a downstream user registry that has sent notifications, a register that will be accessible to competent authorities in Romania.
Failure to comply with authorization provisions is sanctioned as follows:

with a fine from 30,000 to 50,000 lei for manufacturers / importers and downstream users who place on the market substances listed in Annex XIV without authorization
with a fine from 15,000 to 30,000 lei for non-writing on the label of the authorization number by the license holders / downstream users

The restraint procedure allows the management of risks that are not adequately covered by other REACH provisions.
The full list of restrictions is given in Annex XVII of REACH.
Restrictions may be introduced to limit the use of a non-authorized substance.
In some cases, the restriction may take the form of a complete ban on the use of the substance and then you must eliminate the use of the substance from the date specified in Annex XVII of REACH.
In other cases specific conditions may be forbidden or certain conditions may be forbidden to limit the impact of the substance.
If you comply with the restrictions you can continue to use the substance.
If a substance you use is subject to restrictions then this information should be included in Section 15 of the Safety Data Sheet.
If a Safety Data Sheet is not transmitted, and it is not mandatory for mixtures not classified as hazardous, the restriction, according to Art. 32 of REACH must be communicated separately.
Failure to comply with the restrictions on REACH is being sanctioned, according to GD 477/2009, with a fine ranging from 30,000 to 50,000 lei.

REACH requires the transmission of security data along the entire supply chain so that those who use chemicals in the production process to produce other blends or articles will do so in a safe and responsible manner, danger to the health of workers and consumers and without risk to the environment.
In REACH, communication of information in the supply chain is done mainly through the security data sheet.

A Safety Data Sheet (SDS) has a well-defined format and content of REACH Annex II as amended by Regulation No. 453/2010.
SDS is dated, contains 16 mandatory sections and includes information on:

the identification of the substance / preparation and of the company / enterprise;
identification of hazards;
composition / information on ingredients (ingredients);
first aid measures;
fire-fighting measures;
measures in case of accidental losses;
handling and storage;
exposure control / personal protection;
physical and chemical properties;
stability and reactivity;
toxicological information;
ecological information;
considerations regarding disposal;
transport information;
regulatory information;
other information.

If a substance has been registered then its registration number assigned by ECHA will be found in Section 1 and if it is used in a mixture and classified as hazardous then its registration number will be specified in Section 3.
The Safety Data Sheet is provided free of charge on paper or in electronic format and updates without delay in the following situations:

as soon as new information becomes available that may affect risk management measures or new information on hazards
as soon as an authorization has been issued or refused
as soon as a restriction has been imposed

REACH imposes an obligation to collect and store all the information that is needed to carry out the tasks under the Regulation for at least 10 years after the last delivery of the product.
For this reason, the security data sheets and all information used to compile them should be kept archived so that they can be made available to the competent authority upon request.
Non-compliance with this provision shall be sanctioned by a fine of 15,000 to 30,000 lei.

REACH also introduces the concept of extended SDS for a substance, which means a safety data sheet with at least one exposure scenario (SE) included or attached in the Annex.

An Exposure Scenario (SE) “describes how a substance can be safely managed so as to control human and environmental exposure to the use of the substance.
An exposure scenario includes operational conditions (CO) and risk management measures (MMR) identified as necessary to control exposures for relevant uses.

The REACH Regulation does not provide for a fixed SE format attached to the safety data sheet.

An exposure scenario is not required for each substance.
REACH requires submitting an exposure scenario when they are met
concomitantly 3 conditions:

the substance has been registered under REACH
is classified as dangerous in accordance with CLP Regulation 1272/2008 or meets the criteria for classification as PBT or vPvB,
is manufactured or imported in quantities equal to or greater than 10 tonnes per year by the manufacturer / importer.

Compliance is mandatory within 12 months of receipt of a SDS containing a registration number to the instructions of any SE enclosed or included in the security data sheet.
Non-compliance is sanctioned by a fine of 6,500 to 15,000 lei.

The REACH system has replaced over 40 European directives and regulations and has created a single EU-wide system applicable to all chemicals.
REACH is complemented by Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of Chemicals and Mixtures.